This chapter introduces empirical issues that are distinctive to counting-based multidimensional poverty methodologies. It is crucial that indicators accurately reflect deprivations at the individual level and that all indicators be transformed to reflect deprivations in the chosen unit of analysis. This chapter is divided into four sections. The first section very briefly the different types of data sources used for multidimensional measures censuses, administrative records, and household surveys – as well as outstanding data needs. The second discusses distinctive issues to be considered when constructing the indicators to include in a multidimensional poverty measure. The third section presents some basic descriptive analytical tools that can prove helpful in exploring the relationships between different indicators, detecting redundancy, and informing measure design and analysis.